Frontier Science (Scotland) Ltd (FSS) was established in 2001. It is closely affiliated with Frontier Science Foundation Inc, a US based foundation with offices in Boston MA, Amherst NY and Madison WI, and with Frontier Science Foundation- Hellas in Athens. All three organisations are not-for-profit, with Frontier Science (Scotland) Ltd registered as a charity in Scotland (SC033112). All Frontier offices are involved in the design, conduct and analysis of clinical trials.